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Koi Pond Construction


Koi pond construction is similar to other pond construction with a few differences..

1. It needs to larger.

2. It needs to be designed slightly different than other ponds.

After I take you through the two points above, which I am sure I have already covered elsewhere, I will show you how to create an above ground pond with concrete and liner because this is one of the most popular types of pond when having Koi.

1. It needs to be larger.

I will say it over and over again, the bigger the pond the better.

When keeping Koi it has to be large to keep a reasonable selection of Koi and for them to grow to their full potential.

So minimum depth of 1.5 metres and 3.5m x 3.5metres about 12 metres square of surface area. This will keep about 5 to 6 Koi at 50cm long. Before you start your Koi pond construction you need to do an easy calculation. Every 25cm of fish in length you need 1metre square.

So 6 Koi at 50 cm long.

6 x 50cm = 3metres

3 metres x 4 = 12 metres square pond needed.

2. It needs to be designed slightly different than other ponds.

Steep sides and no sloping sides.

Deep end and shallow end, not the traditional deep part in the middle of the pond.

You may decide against having shelves in your pond for plants why? Because Koi will eat them and end up killing them.

Having an above ground pond makes it easier to feed them out of the hand as Koi become very tame. Plus you are closer, which enables you to view their fantastic colours and markings. This is the most common koi pond construction.

building a concrete pond

Koi Pond Construction

For this Koi pond construction I will use an example of 5 metres by 3 metres rectangle pond which will be about 1 metre above ground so will also need to dig down.

Remember to keep all areas of the pond are kept level at all times.

Step1. Mark the area of the pond.

You need to find a suitable place, then measure 3metres and 40cm wide by 5 metres and 40cm long. This will allow extra room from concrete and brick work.

Once you have it measured out you need to mark the outline of your pond with either sand, pegs with string attaching them or anything that is to hand.

This pond will have a deep end and a shallow end, so decide on which end of the pond is going to be shallow and measure 2metres towards the deep end on both sides and mark a line across the pond.

Step 2. Digging the pond

Ok the deep end will be 2 metres deep with the shallow end being 1metre deep.

This means that where the shallow end is going we only need to dig a 30cm hole to later fill with concrete, the rest of the pond will be above ground.

The deep end will need to be dug out, which is the larger section of the pond you marked out. Dig down 1metre and 30cm.

Step 3. The Base of the Pond

Start with the deep end and fill it with half hardcore and half concrete, a good 26cm deep will do the trick. Then while the concrete is still wet press a reinforcing wire mesh into the surface of the concrete and then fill with another 4cm of concrete on top.

Then tap down the whole area to keep level and help release any air bubbles and leave for 2 days to settle and dry.

Once dry build shuttering to support a 20cm wall of concrete around the deep end of the pond and make the shuttering 1 metre deep. Then put the shuttering in place and pour concrete where the walls are going to be. Fill up to the top of the shuttering, which should then flow into the shallow end of the pond and fill the 30cm hole you dug.

Leave whole pond to dry for a good 3 days.

Step 4. Building Outside wall

Now you need to build a brick wall 1metre high all the way around the pond.

Step 5. Install Liner

Lay out liner across the foundation of the pond and running up the 1 metre high wall and over the top of the pond

Step 6. Build second concrete base at deep end

Fill deep end of pond with another 10cm layer of concrete, this sandwiches the liner and create extra waterproofing and support. Insure concrete is level and then dries.

Step 7. Build block inside wall

Then build a block wall around the inside of the deep end which raises about 10cm above the bottom of the shallow end of your pond.

Step 8. Build second concrete base at shallow end

Fill shallow end of pond with another 10cm layer of concrete, this will sandwich the liner and create extra waterproofing and support. Wait for two days for concrete to dry.

Step 9. Continue inner wall

Continue building the inner block wall up until you reach around 30 to 40 cm from the top of the outer wall, then continue building with bricks.

Step 10. Cut the liner.

The liner that is sandwiched between the two walls should me sticking out of the top which can now be neatly snipped off.

Step 11. Coping tiles

Cement coping tiles to the top of and all around the brick wall with a 1cm to 2 cm overhang both sides.

Step 12. Toxic chemicals

Cement and other slabs contain toxic chemicals that will harm the fish so there are two things you can do.

Paint the whole pond, twice, with sealant to trap in all the toxic chemicals or fill the pond with water, leave it for 3 days to remove all the toxic and then pump all the water out. You need to do this several times to insure all the toxic has been removed.

Step 13. Ready to go

Your koi pond construction is complete and your pond is now ready, either wait for rain water to fill your pond (recommended) or fill with tap water and let sit for 4 to 6 months before intruducing Koi.

There are many more ways to create an above ground pond and many different ways to use concrete, which I will cover in the building ponds section.

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